LESSON # 1
Arguments, Premises And Conclusions
Reading Assignment: 1.1 (pp. 1-7)
Click here to bypass the following discussion and go straight to the assignments.
Logic is the science that evaluates arguments.
An argument is a group of statements including one or more premises and one and only one conclusion.
A statement is a sentence that is either true or false, such as "The cat is on the mat." Many sentences are not statements, such as "Close the door, please" , "How old are you?"
A premise is a statementin an argument that provides reason or support for the conclusion. There can be one or many premises in a single argument.
A conclusion is a statement in an argument that indicates of what the arguer is trying to convince the reader/listener. What is the argument trying to prove? There can be only one conclusion in a single argument.
In this lesson you will need to be able to distinguish premises and conclusions:
The foolproof way to do this is to ask yourself what the author of the argument is trying to get you to believe. The answer to this question is the conclusion.
There must also be at least one reason and possibly many. These are your premises.
Your common sense will be of great help here.
You should also study very carefully the lists of premise and conclusion indicator words on page 3 in the text. There will not always be indicator words, though more often than not there are. You should note as well that the conclusion can often be identified as the statement directly before a premise indicator. Remember that these are general rules only. Think of indicator words as "red flags." They are positioned in the argument to signal the author's intent, but always check yourself by asking what's being proven, and what the proof is.
When you feel confident that you have mastered these concepts, do the True/False exercise on p. 13 in the textbook. (section IV) You can check your answers in the appendix of this study guide.
Then do exercises 1.1 I 1-22 on your Logic Coach Software. If you need more practice, feel free to do more. If you use up all the exercises in section I, you may do problems from II and send the answers to me to get checked (this section of the text isn't on Logic Coach)
When you are ready, complete the following assignments, using the book as little as possible. Hand in both of the following assignments together with a copy of your logic coach record screen. For more detailed instructions on doing this click here.
Rewrite the following arguments listing the premise(s) first and the conclusion last. Each line should be a single statement written as a complete sentence. Feel free to modify the sentences as you deem necessary, without changing their basic meaning. (after all you want to be restating this argument, not writing a new one!) Label the premise(s) P¹, P², P³, etc. and the conclusion C. Leave out any indicator words and any fluff (i.e., sentences which are neither the conclusion nor a premise). 10 points each.
Cats with long hair shed all over the house so you should not get a long-haired cat.
I have heard that they also have lots of fleas.
|Long-haired cats shed all over the house|
|Long-haired cats have a lot of fleas|
|You should not get a long haired cat|
1. Fairdale will win the championship because they have the best team.
2. Since the housing market is depressed and interest rates are low, it's a good time to buy a home.
3. China is guilty of extreme human rights abuses. Further, they refuse to implement democratic reforms. Thus, the U.S. should refuse to deal with the present Chinese government.
4. The revocation of the 55 mph speed limit has resulted in an increased number of auto fatalities. We must alleviate this problem with stricter speed limit enforcement.
5. We may infer that the U. S. military is both capable and competent from the results of the Persian Gulf War.
6. Scientific discoveries are continually debunking religious myths. Further, science provides the only hope for solving the many problems faced by humankind. Hence, science provides a more accurate view of human life than does religion.
7. Jesse is one year old. Most one-year-olds can walk. It follows that Jesse can walk.
8. I deserve a raise. I'm very good at my job.
Write out two arguments you have encountered in the course of your day. First write them as you encountered them, then re-write in the format you practiced in assignment 1. Make sure they are arguments, with premises and conclusions. You'll get more practice distinguishing between arguments and other passages in the next lesson. For now just make sure there is a conclusion and at least one premise and you'll do fine. (10 points each.)
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"Argument" is the most fundamental concept in our study of critical thinking. Much of this course will be devoted to identifying, developing, and evaluating arguments. We will study valid and invalid forms of arguments, strong and weak arguments, causal arguments, analogical arguments, and arguments based on generalizations. The significance of arguments to critical thinking makes it important for all of us to understand the term, and its relationship to some of the basic language of the critical thinking course.
The word "argument" is often used in everyday language to refer to a heated dispute, a quarrel, a shouting match. Please take note that we will not be using argument in this sense throughout this course. Instead, "argument," as we will be using the term refers to "a set of propositions, or statements, which are designed to convince a reader or listener of a claim, or conclusion, and which include at least one reason (premise) for accepting the conclusion."
Some other definitions of argument may be helpful to you. Kathleen Dean Moore defines an argument as "a claim or proposition put forward along with reasons or evidence supporting it." Robert Ennis defines an argument as "an attempt to support a conclusion by giving reasons for it." (Critical Thinking, 1995) Irving M. Copi, in his Introduction to Logic, defines an argument as a "group of propositions of which one, the conclusion, is claimed to follow from the others, which are premises." In his book, Critical Thinking, Richard Epstein provides the following definition of argument: " An argument is a collection of statements, one of which is called the conclusion whose truth the argument attempts to establish; the others are called the premises, which are supposed to lead to, or support, or convince that the conclusion is true."
To understand "argument," it necessary to understand the terms, "proposition" or "statement," the purpose of arguments, and the relationship of premises and conclusions in an argument.
Warning: The different meanings of "argument"
I made reference earlier to the everyday understanding of argument as a shouting match, dispute, or quarrel, and indicated that our definition of argument is different. This everyday conception of argument can cause confusion at times when you try to identify arguments. Sometimes students conclude that a specific passage is not and argument because they agree with the premise(s) and conclusion. Such an answer assumes that an argument requires a dispute or quarrel. Remember that a passage designed to convince you to accept a conclusion, with at least one premise to support that conclusion, is an argument.
Propositions and Statements
The building blocks of arguments are propositions (or statements or claims). A proposition (statement or claim) is a sentence that is either true or false. This means that a proposition is distinct from other sentences that not either true or false, such as, questions, commands, and exclamations, All of the following are examples of propositions: "The U. S. holds presidential elections every four years." "Bob bought a new car." "Suzanne has the measles." "More than forty people are enrolled in this class." "An advanced form of life exists on the planet Mars."
Each of these statements is a proposition because it is either true or false, or put differently, it has truth value. With some investigation, one can determine the truth or falsity of each statement. It is very important to note that even if a proposition seems obviously false, such as the statement about advanced life on Mars, it is still a proposition, though a false proposition.
You should also note that a single sentence may include more than one proposition, For example, the sentence, "Since smoking is bad for your health, you should not do it," includes two propositions: "Smoking is bad for your health." and "You should not do it." "Joseph went to the store and Barbara went to the beach," includes more than one claim.
Beware, sometimes a sentence may seem to include two propositions, but does not. A common error is to mistake propositions like the following as being two propositions: "If Andre comes to the party, then Susan will stay at home." We will discuss these types of propositions (they're called "conditionals") later in this course. For now, note that this proposition is NOT saying that both events (Andre comes to the party and Susan will stay at home.) will occur. Rather it is making a single proposition about the relationship of the two parts, namely that if one thing happens the other will happen too.
Warning: "It's not a proposition. It's just his or her opinion."
The statement above is one commonly made by students in a critical thinking class. This statement reflects a misunderstanding that needs to be resolved now. If we define the term "opinion" as a belief that we accept, though without certainty, then the term covers many topics of vital interest to us. Our views about religion, the best form of government, what constitutes the virtuous life, the meaning of works of art, literature, and music, can all be classified as "opinions." If such statements are not propositions, then they are not true or false, and there is no need to offer reasons in support of them.
In this course, we will not dismiss beliefs which people accept, though without certainly, as mere opinions. Rather, we will make a distinction between "mere opinion," that is a belief that is unsupported by reasons, and "reasoned judgment," which is supported by reasons. We will try to improve our skills in developing arguments to support our own opinions, and in evaluating the arguments offered by others in support of their opinions.
Please click here to see student responses on sample exercises in identifying propositions. After you review the samples, you will be asked to complete some exercises on your own.
The Purpose of Arguments: To Convince or Persuade
Arguments consist of at least two claims -- statements that are true or false -- which are offered for a specific purpose, namely to convince or persuade a listener or reader. Arguments are related to persuasion, the activities of convincing and of being convinced. These are activities very familiar to all of us. Scarcely a day passes without someone trying to convince us of something. Parents and friends try to convince us to take better care of our health, advertisers try to convince us to buy their products, or political candidates attempt to persuade us on how to vote. The list of examples could go on endlessly.
Recall something that someone has tried to convince you of -- something you should do or believe -- in the last several days? Make note of this example because we will come back to it.
While arguments are intended to convince, this does not mean that all attempts to convince are arguments. Most of us use and encounter a variety of methods of persuasion. A parent might use a simple gesture or facial expression to persuade a child to refrain from a specific behavior; advertisers sometimes try to convince us to buy their products with advertisements that depict a cute child or pet, a handsome man or pretty woman and the name of his or her product. Sometimes people try to persuade by manipulating language in a variety of ways, such as, through threats and flattery, or by calling people names that have powerful emotional associations, or phrases that insinuate or suggest claims.
Such efforts to convince are not arguments. Arguments can be distinguished from these other types of persuasion because they provide reasons for accepting the conclusion.
You should see that you can identify the issue by turning the conclusion into a question.
To determine the conclusion, ask yourself, "What is this writer or speaker trying to convince me of?"
A passage that only informs is not an argument; the writer or speaker must be trying to convince you of something before it can be called an argument. Note that 2 and 3, 14 and 15, deal with the same information, though only one of each pair is an argument.
The Parts of an Argument: Conclusion and Reasons
The purpose of arguments, namely to convince or persuade, is reflected in the relationship of their parts. We have already said that an argument is comprised of a claim, or conclusion, and at least one reason for accepting the claim or conclusion. The propositions in an argument are inferentially related, that is, one or more of the propositions are intended to establish the truth of the main proposition or conclusion. The conclusion of the argument is the claim that the writer or speaker is trying to convince another person to accept. In addition to a conclusion, an argument must have at least one reason offered in support of the conclusion. A proposition offered in support of a conclusion can be called simply a reason, or a premise.
Don't allow these terms and concepts to obscure from you the fact that hearing and developing arguments is a very common activity, even if you have never reflected on it. If you tell a friend, "You should stop smoking. It's bad for your health," you have given an argument, whose main claim, or conclusion, is "You should stop smoking," and includes at least one reason, or premise, "It's bad for your health." When you express a viewpoint or suggest a course of action to a friend or colleague, and he or she asks "Why?" then the other person is really asking you to give an argument to support your conclusion.
Earlier I asked you to think of an example of something someone has tried to convince you of recently. Recall that example. Did that individual offer at least one reason for you to be convinced or persuaded? If he or she offered a reason, then that individual presented an argument.
Identifying Arguments, Conclusions, and Premises
One of the objectives of this lesson is for you to be able to distinguish sets of propositions that are arguments from those that are not arguments. We have offered the following definition of argument: An "argument" is a set of propositions, which is designed to convince a reader or listener of a conclusion, and which include at least one reason (premise) for accepting the conclusion." Arguments, which are designed to convince, are different from sets of propositions that instruct, give directions, report or inform. Most newspaper articles, for example, give reports and are designed primarily to inform you. Instructional manuals provide directions on how to do something.
If asked to determine whether a set of propositions is an argument or not, ask yourself the questions, "Is this passage trying to convince me of something." If the answer to this question is "yes," then ask, "What claim or conclusion is the passage intended to convince me to accept?" After identifying the conclusion, ask, "What reasons are given for me to accept this conclusion?"
Remember that so long as you have a conclusion and at least one reason or premise, the passage is an argument.
Conclusion indicators and premise indicators - In identifying conclusions and premises, it is sometimes helpful to look for certain key words which, if used properly, indicate a conclusion or a premise. Terms such as, "therefore," "hence," "thus," "consequently," or "so," normally introduce a conclusion. Similarly, terms such as "since," "because," "for," and "inasmuch as" often introduce a premise.
Common Premise Indicators
Common Conclusion Indicators
|In light of...||Hence ...|
|Given that...||Thus ...|
|For the reason that...||In conclusion...|
|It follows that...|
|As a result...|
You must be careful in relying on these indicators. Unfortunately, these terms do not always serve as indicators. Consider the word "since." When it is used to indicate a time, i.e., "Since I came to FSU, I have had many friends." In this case, "since" refers to the time that I came to FSU. Moreover, writers and speakers do not always use these words to introduce their conclusions and premises, and sometimes when people use these term, they use them incorrectly. Hence (Note, I've used a conclusion indicator), these terms do not offer infallible guides to identifying premises and conclusions.
Even though these indicator terms are not infallible guides, they can provide a useful test when you seek to identify conclusions and premises. Consider the following examples. "Mr. Jones has served in the U.S. Senate for twelve years and has extensive experience in foreign affairs. You should support him for President."
Develop several formulations of the set of propositions with different conclusion and premise indicators to determine which formulation makes sense. One possible formulation would be "Since you should support Jones for President, therefore he has served in the U.S. Senate for twelve years and has extensive experience in foreign affairs."
Another possible formulation would be:
"Since Jones has served in the U.S. Senate for twelve years and has extensive experience in foreign affairs, therefore you should support him for President."
Supplying these premise and conclusion indicators make it clear that the second formulation is the most sensible. This lets us know that "You should support Jones for President" is the conclusion, and that "Jones has served in the U.S. Senate for twelve years and has extensive experience in foreign affairs" is the premise.
Issues and Arguments
The "issue" of an argument is the question that the argument is intended to answer. Consider the example just discussed:
"Mr. Jones has served in the U.S. Senate for twelve years and has extensive experience in foreign affairs. You should support him for President."
The issue here is whether I should support Jones for President.
Recognizing the issue can be helpful in identifying an argument's conclusion. Ask yourself what question the argument seems be answering, and then look for the answer to that question. At the same time if you identify the conclusion, it is then easy to state the issue. State "whether" at the beginning of the conclusion, and that is the issue.
The concept of issue is useful. In the course of discussions and debates, it is not uncommon for participants to lose focus, to stray from the topic at hand. Sometimes a person may intentionally try to turn a conversation away from the issue at hand, because they do not want to discuss it. In such situations, it is helpful to ask, "What is the issue?" In other words, clarifying the question your arguments are intended to answer can help us keep our attention focused.
Please click here to review student answers on exercises on analyzing arguments. After you review the samples you will have an opportunity to complete some exercises on your own.